THE NOVEL CORONAVIRUS COVID-19
For primary information regarding COVID-19, be sure to check the latest announcements from your local government and public health organisations.
The figure above summarizes the typical symptoms and course of COVID-19. Data from 40,000 people in China show that about 80% of those confirmed to be infected recovered after a mild illness, and that About 20% of the remaining cases result in hospitalization with pneumonia or other diseases. About 5% of cases will require intensive care with a ventilator, and 2-3% of cases can be fatal. COVID-19 is also characterized by a prolonged duration of symptoms compared to the common cold or flu.
Virus Survival on Surfaces Poster
COVID-19 can survive on surfaces for up to three days, which may be longer than people think. Download this A4 poster for use in the workplace or elsewhere to raise awareness of this fact.
Various questions about the new coronavirus were explained based on medical knowledge.
What is the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)?
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause disease in animals and humans. There are many different types. The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is classified as a beta coronavirus.
It has been reported to have a high genetic likeness (about 80%) to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV). It uses the same receptor (ACE2) as SARS-CoV to infect human cells.
The new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), it is classified as a class II infection under the Infectious Diseases Act. As it is understood to be a dangerous disease, measures must be taken to prevent its spread per the Infectious Diseases Act.
Other coronaviruses (HCov-229E, HCov-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1) that can infect humans and cause common cold symptoms are not designated under the Infectious Diseases Act as they are not particularly dangerous.
The coronavirus has a lipid membrane—a layer of fat which protects the virus from the outside world. When it breaks down, it becomes inactive, not dead, as is not an organism, but inactive because it loses its activity. Soap and alcohol can break down the shell made of this fat.
What is the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)?
The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, is an infection caused by the recently discovered coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. This new virus and infection were first discovered after an outbreak in December 2019.
What is the incubation period of the new coronavirus?
The incubation period is the time between a person first becoming infected and symptoms of the disease appearing. The incubation period of the new coronavirus is estimated to range from one to fourteen days. Most commonly, it is around 5 days.
What are the symptoms of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)?
The most common symptoms of the new coronavirus infection are fever, a dry cough, shortness of breath and tiredness. Some sufferers may experience symptoms such as aches, pains, stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, loss of smell or taste, and diarrhoea. These symptoms are usually mild, to begin with, and develop gradually.
Some people do not feel unwell or show any symptoms when infected. Around 85% of people recover with no need for special treatment. One in six people, about 15%, will become severely ill and have difficulty breathing. Older people and those with underlying diseases such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes are more likely to develop serious illnesses.
If you have a fever, cough, or difficulty breathing (including when you move), you need to seek help as soon as possible.
How does the new coronavirus spread?
The new coronavirus spreads through small droplets that come from the nose or mouth of an infected person when they cough, speak or exhale. These droplets stick to objects and surfaces, and people become infected by touching their eyes, nose, or mouth after coming into contact with these objects or surfaces.
A person can also become infected by inhaling droplets directly. For this reason, it is essential to stay at least two meters away from others.
Is the new coronavirus airborne? ✎
The virus that causes the new coronavirus is transmitted primarily through droplets that occur when an infected person coughs or sneezes or speaks. These splashes are too heavy to float in the air and quickly fall to the floor or surface. It will quickly fall to the floor or surface.
If you are within two meters of a person infected with the new coronavirus, you can become infected by inhaling the virus, touching a contaminated surface, or touching your eyes, nose, or mouth before washing your hands.
However, microscopic particles containing viruses, called micro-sprays, have been found to drift through the air for 20-30 minutes. Although infection by micro droplets has not yet been confirmed, it is better to ventilate the area. Research is ongoing around the world to determine if infection can be spread from micro droplets.
Can new coronaviruses be transmitted even from people without symptoms? ✎
Research is ongoing around the world to determine if the infection can be spread from patients who have no symptoms. The new coronavirus is spread mainly through the droplets of coughs and sneezes. The risk of contracting the new coronavirus from a person without symptoms is low. However, most people who are infected with the new coronavirus have only mild symptoms. This is especially true in the early stages of the disease. Therefore, it is possible to contract a new type of coronavirus from a person who is not feeling well at all, except for a mild cough, for example. Therefore, wearing a cloth mask, even if there are no symptoms, may somewhat prevent the spread of the infection. However, medical masks are in short supply all over the world and should be saved for use in medical institutions.
Can it be transmitted through the feces of a new coronavirus patient? ✎
Research is ongoing around the world to determine if the infection can be spread through patient excrement. The risk of contracting the new coronavirus from the feces of an infected person appears to be low. Early investigations suggest that the virus may be present in the feces, but the spread of the infection by this route is not the dominant factor in this outbreak. That said, touching feces is a risk of illness, including other infections, which is one of the reasons why you need to wash your hands after going to the bathroom.
What are my chances of contracting a new coronavirus? ✎
The risk depends on where you are - more specifically, whether there is a new coronavirus epidemic going on there or not.
Currently, new coronaviruses are spreading around the world (cities and regions). For those living in or visiting these areas, the risk of contracting the new coronavirus is much higher. Governments and health authorities are taking proactive action each time a new strain of a new coronavirus is confirmed. Be sure to adhere to local restrictions on travel, travel, and large gatherings. By cooperating in disease control efforts, you can reduce the risk of contracting a new coronavirus or spreading the infection.
The new coronavirus epidemic can stave off infection, as has been shown in China and other countries. Unfortunately, a new epidemic can occur quickly. It's important to know what's going on where you are, or where you're going.
How worried should I be about a new coronavirus? ✎
The illness caused by the new coronavirus infection is generally mild, especially in children and young people. However, there is a possibility that it could become severe. One out of every five people infected will need to be hospitalized. Therefore, it is very common to worry about how the new coronavirus will affect you and your loved ones.
We can take action to protect ourselves, our loved ones, and our communities. First and foremost in these actions is regular and thorough hand washing and cough etiquette. The second is to stay informed and follow the advice of the health authorities, including restrictions on travel, mobility and assembly.
A new type of coronavirus infection is a disease that no one has ever contracted before. Therefore, there is no one who is immune. Infections could go up in an explosive way. What this means is that, for example, the common flu is not contagious to all members of society because a certain percentage of people have had it before. Therefore, even if there are many people suffering from the disease, the number will not increase rapidly. However, new coronavirus infections can occur in anyone who inhales a certain amount of that virus, which means that the number of people infected will explode. And since 15% of infected people become seriously ill, the number of people who become seriously ill increases, and hospital beds, ventilators, and other machines run out, and if the number is small, the people who can be helped will not be able to receive treatment and will not be able to be helped. It also takes up a lot of manpower and beds to treat coronavirus infections, leaving us with less capacity to treat serious illnesses such as heart attacks and cancer that we would have been able to treat in the past. In other words, a lot of people who normally would have survived would have died. This is the medical collapse. Because of the potential for this to happen, the new coronavirus infection is a very scary disease.
What kind of people are at risk of becoming seriously ill? ✎
It has been shown that the elderly and those with pre-existing conditions (such as high blood pressure, heart disease, respiratory diseases such as asthma, cancer, diabetes, etc.) have a higher chance of developing a serious illness than those without. Smoking also puts you at risk for serious illness. Now is the time to stop smoking. Research is ongoing around the world on how many times more severe the disease is in healthy people and young people.
Are antibiotics effective in the prevention and treatment of new coronaviruses? ✎
Since the new coronavirus is a virus, antibiotics will not work. Antibiotics should not be used as a means of preventing or treating new coronaviruses. It should only be used when prescribed by a doctor to treat a bacterial infection.
Are there any medications or treatments that can prevent or treat the new coronavirus? ✎
While Western medicine, traditional and home remedies may relieve the symptoms of the new coronavirus, there is currently no evidence that any particular medication can prevent or cure the new coronavirus. Clinical studies are being conducted around the world on several promising drugs. These medications may work against new coronaviruses, but they can also cause side effects and should not be used unless the doctor deems it necessary. There have been cases of deaths overseas, and easy self-medication is not recommended.
Can you contract a new coronavirus from an animal or pet? ✎
Originally, many types of coronaviruses used animals as hosts. Occasionally, a person may contract these viruses and further spread the infection to other people. For example, SARS-CoV1 is derived from the muskrat and MERS-CoV is derived from the human cobra camel. It has not yet been confirmed whether the new coronavirus can be transmitted from animals.
To protect yourself, avoid direct contact with animals, such as when visiting a market that deals with live animals. Always make sure your food is safe. Handle raw meat, milk, or animal organs with care to prevent contamination of uncooked foods and avoid ingesting raw or undercooked animal products.
Does immunity develop after infection with the new coronavirus? Is it possible to re-infect? ✎
In some infectious diseases, once infected and recovered, antibodies are formed and lifelong immunity is acquired (such as measles).
For RNA viruses, including new coronaviruses, it generally takes about three weeks to form antibodies. However, it is still unclear how long it will take for antibodies to be formed against the new coronavirus. It is not known. There is also some debate as to whether the development of antibodies means acquisition of immunity.
Even if antibodies are developed, it is not known how long the immunity lasts. . For example, the SARS coronavirus epidemic of 2002-2003 had an immunity period of 2- It is said to be three years.
With regard to reinfection, there have been cases in some countries where post-recovery viral tests have come back positive. However, there are several factors that may contribute to this result. It is more likely that the initial virus has not been shed and remains dormant and asymptomatic in the body. In addition, the accuracy of the antibody test was not perfect, and the test showed that the virus had not actually disappeared. In addition, the accuracy of the antibody test was not perfect, so the test did not show that the virus had actually disappeared. There is also the possibility that the test was negative (false negative).
There are many things we still don't know about antibodies and immunity to the new coronavirus. It is not a good idea to go out of the house after getting infected with the virus, even if you have recovered, not only for yourself but also for the people around you. This may increase your risk of infection. Prevent the spread of the virus by following basic infection prevention techniques (washing hands, keeping a certain distance from others, etc.) Be prepared to take action.
I would like to know about antibody testing. ✎
For antibody testing, there are several simple kits on the market, but their accuracy is limited. The World Health Organization (WHO) has warned against individual use of the drug as insufficient. In Europe and other countries, large-scale antibody tests are being carried out by laboratories, but the acquisition of antibodies in a population and the use of antibodies in a population Research on immunity is still underway.
Available in 10 languages: English, Chinese (Simplified), Hindi, Indonesian, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese
When a patient has suspected coronavirus, and healthcare workers must make an assessment, overcoming the language barrier can be particularly stressful. To aid communication between healthcare workers patients, we created a bilingual, illustrated symptom checklist
To protect yourself from "falsehoods, gossip, fakes, disinformation, and misinformation" that abounds in the world, this section provides you with the knowledge you need to protect yourself.
CONTRIBUTORSEditor : Krumholn, Eisuke TachikawaIllustration : Naho.yDesign : Nozomi Aoyama, Eisuke Tachikawa